Chess Guidelines: The Final Information for Rookies

Studying primary chess guidelines will enable you to construct a powerful basis in chess. Many college students should not have a transparent image of those guidelines at their starting levels.

That’s the reason I made a decision to assist rookies with primary chess guidelines.

Chess teaches you administration and to extract work out of your subordinates. It’s a battle between two monarchs. The king manages the troops. It plans the operation and executes it.

After studying this information, I like to recommend you to look at the following video to show your self with this chess puzzle.

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1. Evolution of Chess Guidelines

Scandinavian Defense

Chess guidelines have advanced a lot over the centuries, from the early chess-like video games performed in India within the sixth century. For a lot of that point, the foundations assorted from space to space.

The fashionable guidelines first took type in Italy through the thirteenth century, giving extra mobility to items that beforehand had extra restricted motion (such because the queen and bishop).

Such modified guidelines entered into an accepted type through the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century.

The fundamental strikes of the king, rook, and knight stay unchanged. Pawns, initially, didn’t have the choice of shifting two squares on their first transfer, and when promoted by reaching the eighth rank, might grow to be a queen solely.

2. The That means of Chess

Vintage chaturanga recreation board with items. It’s an historical Indian technique board recreation from Gupta Empire within the sixth century AD, the ancestor of board video games: chess, shogi, sittuyin, makruk, xiangqi, and janggi

Chess has its origin within the recreation referred to as chaturanga, whose title means “4 divisions”, in regards to the 4 items that symbolize the models of the Indian military. These are the oldest within the recreation and correspond to the present pawns (for infantry), knights (cavalry), bishops (elephants), and rooks (chariots) of the trendy model of the sport.

There are greater than 200 kinds of chess items. The items replicate the navy custom of every place. Chess is performed between two gamers, who every lead the items of a shade positioned on the so-called chessboard.

Every participant takes his flip, which consists of shifting one among his items to a sq., based on the foundations of the motion of the items. In official competitions, the time every participant has to consider his strikes is proscribed by a clock and varies for every competitors.

3. The Purpose of the Recreation

The fundamental goal of the chess recreation is to mate the opponent’s king, and this may solely be achieved by way of the collaboration of all of the items and the right recreation based mostly on strategic plans.

The sport ends when one of many gamers checkmates his rival, but in addition when a participant, seeing himself inevitably misplaced, doesn’t wish to look forward to the mate, and declares that he surrenders or leaves.

It will probably additionally finish when, as a result of prevailing equality, and as soon as the vast majority of the items have been eradicated, neither facet can obtain mate. In such a case, the sport ends in a draw.

4. Identify of Items, Varieties, and Abbreviations

The abbreviation for each bit corresponds to its preliminary letter: queen (Q), king (Okay), bishop (B), knight (N), rook (R). The pawns should not have an abbreviation, the sq. through which they’re situated is just written.

5. The Chessboard

Chess is performed on a sq. board divided into 64 squares (eight-by-eight) of alternating colours.

It doesn’t matter what the precise colours of the board, the lighter-colored squares are referred to as “gentle” or “white” and the darker-colored squares are referred to as “darkish” or “black”.

Sixteen white and sixteen black items are positioned on the board firstly of the sport. The board is positioned so {that a} white sq. is in every participant’s bottom-right nook.

Horizontal rows are referred to as ranks and vertical rows are referred to as recordsdata.

In accordance with FIDE tools requirements, the size of the facet of a sq. must be twice the size of the diameter of the bottom of a pawn.

6. Preparations of Items

That is the beginning place of the sport.

Every participant will lead the items of 1 shade, and the participant who has white is the one who at all times makes the primary transfer. The king and the queen occupy the 2 central squares of the primary row, in order that the queen is on the sq. of the identical shade. You can not place multiple piece on a sq. at any time.

On both sides of those two items, a bishop, a knight, and a rook are positioned, on this order, finishing the first rank. Within the 2nd rank, the eight pawns of every facet are positioned.

7. Identification of Squares – File a Place

Chessboard from White’s perspective
The title of the squares is the product of the intersection between the rank and a file.










The annotation of the sport is crucial in order that the strikes of a recreation might be preserved. On this approach, the video games of the nice gamers can then be reproduced, which decisively contributes to perfecting the sport itself and facilitates research. There are two notation methods: algebraic and descriptive. The algebraic system is by far essentially the most used.

Within the algebraic notation system, every file (the vertical line of 8 squares) is represented by a letter, from a to h, beginning with the one to the left of the white ones ( “a-file”), whereas every rank (horizontal line of 8 squares) is represented by a quantity from 1 to eight, beginning with the rank closest to White (1st rank). Thus, every sq. has a reputation, made up of a letter and a quantity, equivalent to the file and rank to which it belongs.

A transfer is written by placing first the preliminary that represents the piece, after which the coordinate of the sq. the place the piece is shifting. For instance, the transfer Qf5 signifies that the queen is performed to the sq. f5. A pawn transfer is represented solely by the sq. the place it strikes. For instance, b5 signifies that the pawn performs to the b5 sq..

7.1 Write a Transfer?

Chess rules

When a bit captures one other, the sq. the place the seize takes place is just talked about, and optionally (with nice acceptance) it’s preceded by an x (seize signal).

For instance, Nxd4 signifies that a knight has captured an enemy pawn or piece that was on d4 (it isn’t essential to specify which piece it’s). For castling, the particular indicators O-O are used within the case of quick castling (with the rook on the kingside) and O-O-O for lengthy castling (with the rook on the queenside).

As well as, typically one among these indicators is normally added after the transfer: “+” to sign the test,”#” to sign the checkmate,”!” to point that this can be a good transfer, “?” to point that it’s a dangerous transfer, and many others.

7.2 Instance

1. e4 c6
2. d4 d5
3. Nc3 dxe4
4. Nxe4 Nf6
5. Qd3 e5
6. dxe5 Qa5+ (the “+” signal signifies test)
7. Bd2 Qxe5
8. 0-0-0 Nxe4? (dangerous play)
9. Qd8+! Kxd8 (the queen sacrifice permits White to mate in 3 strikes)
10. Bg5+ Ke8
11. Rd8#

8. Common Chess Guidelines

Every participant makes a transfer in flip, with White at all times beginning the sport. A transfer consists of shifting a bit to any of the squares that permit its motion.

8.1 Capturing a Piece

Chess rules

When a bit is positioned on a sq. occupied by an enemy piece, it captures it. This seize consists of eradicating the enemy piece from the board and eliminating it from the sport. You aren’t allowed to seize your items.

Neither can it go over one other piece, be it its personal or an opponent’s, nor can two items be positioned in the identical sq. in any approach.

When a bit has the opportunity of capturing one other, it’s mentioned to be attacking or threatening it. This risk isn’t obligatory. A particular case is a risk to the king, referred to as a test.

The participant who’s in test should defend himself, and if he can’t accomplish that, then checkmate happens, which ends up in his quick defeat.

8.2 Unlawful Strikes

Ilegal moves

Any unlawful transfer have to be withdrawn and a authorized transfer made as a substitute, however as soon as such a authorized transfer has been made, the flip of the sport passes to the opponent, and it isn’t attainable to rectify it. Thus, as quickly because the participant’s hand has launched the piece, the transfer is taken into account over, and it isn’t attainable to return.

However, if the piece has not been launched, the transfer has not been completed, and it’s attainable to make any authorized transfer with the piece that has been touched, however there’s an obligation to maneuver that piece and never one other. In different phrases, when a bit is touched, there’s an obligation to play it, though the sq. the place will probably be positioned might be chosen.

8.3 Piece You Contact, Piece You Transfer

Chess rules

In the identical approach, if an opponent’s piece is touched, there’s an obligation to seize it with no matter piece it’s, each time attainable. In any other case, that’s, if it isn’t attainable to seize the opposing piece that has been touched, every other authorized transfer might be made.

9. Piece Motion and Worth of the Items

9.1 Rook

The rook is at all times performed in a straight line, each horizontally and vertically, that’s, by recordsdata or by ranks, and any variety of squares, at all times in the identical course. The motion of the rook is proven within the diagram, and it might transfer to any of the marked inexperienced squares.

The following diagram demonstrates the motion of the rook when different items get of their approach. You may seize the opposing pawn, however you can not play the squares which might be past that pawn. Additionally, their items and pawns lower him off.

9.2 Bishop

The bishop strikes diagonally, and just like the rook, on any variety of squares, at all times in the identical course. As a consequence, a bishop positioned on a white sq. can by no means be performed to any black sq..

The following diagram reveals that the bishop on e4, being restricted by its pawn and knight, can’t transfer to g2 or d3 and, subsequently, to any sq. past these items. Nevertheless, it has freedom of motion on the d5, c6, b7, a8, and f5 squares. And you may, if you wish to, seize the opponent’s pawn on g6.

9.3 Queen

It’s the most cell piece since it might transfer as a rook or as a bishop. That’s, you may transfer each diagonally and by ranks or file, and at all times in any variety of squares. The earlier diagram reveals the motion of the queen.

Within the subsequent diagram, we see that the queen can transfer to a variety of squares and seize one of many 4 black items and even the black pawn on a7 if it needs. Nevertheless, it can’t transfer to d3 or f2 as a result of its items forestall it.

9.4 Knight

The knight is the piece that presents the best difficulties in understanding its motion. This motion, not like the opposite items, isn’t rectilinear: it jumps forming an “L” with two squares on one facet and one sq. on the opposite.

The following diagram reveals that the knight can seize one of many two black pawns or the black knight on f6 if it needs. We additionally see that it has freedom of motion on the d6, g3, and f2 squares. But it surely can’t transfer to c3 or d2 as a result of its pawns forestall it from doing so.

9.5 King

The king, just like the queen, strikes in all instructions. However there’s a large distinction, as it might solely do it from one sq. away. The king is an important piece in chess since its loss means the lack of the sport.

Instance 1: On this place, we see that the white king can seize each knights and even the pawn on d3. It will probably additionally transfer freely on the f5-square. However it might NOT seize the black bishop nor can it transfer on the d4, e3, and f4-squares. The king can’t seize a defended piece and can’t transfer on squares managed by the rival.

Instance 2: On this diagram, we see the king surrounded by each opposing pawns and its pawns. We word that it can’t transfer to any yellow sq. as a result of it’s managed by the rival; nevertheless, it might transfer to f6 or seize the defenseless bishop on e6.

9.6 Pawn

The pawn strikes in a vertical course, one area ahead within the file through which it’s situated. Opposite to the opposite items, the pawn at all times advances, it can’t return.

Exceptionally, when a pawn is on its sq. of origin (2nd horizontal) it might advance one or two steps, relying on the participant’s comfort. From there, it might solely advance one step on future strikes it makes.

9.6.1 Pawn Promotion

As has been mentioned, the pawn can’t return, so when a pawn reaches the eighth horizontal (rival’s 1st), it might now not make any extra strikes, however reasonably, at that second, it’s promoted and turns into the piece that’s most popular, aside from the king, since there can solely be one king on both sides.

That is often known as the promotion of the pawn; the queen is normally chosen, as it’s the strongest piece. This selection have to be made on the exact second through which the pawn is positioned on the eighth, eradicating the mentioned pawn from the board and putting as a replacement the chosen piece, which have to be of the identical shade because the promoted pawn.

9.6.2 Pawn Captures

One other peculiarity of the pawn, which differentiates it from the opposite items, is that along with not with the ability to return, it captures differently than the one it advances: It captures diagonally, at all times a single step, in the direction of the adjoining squares.

However, if the proprietor of the opponent’s piece is on the sq. in entrance of the pawn (the place it might in any other case transfer), it’s going to now not have the ability to transfer ahead. Within the diagram, you may see the probabilities of capturing the pawn.

9.6.3 En Passant

This particular approach of seize applies solely to the seize of a pawn by one other pawn; and in addition in a sure scenario, when a pawn has handed the center of the board and the opposing pawn has simply moved two steps. If you wish to seize en passant, it have to be finished instantly; in any other case, it’s going to now not be attainable to seize en passant. This chess rule is without doubt one of the two particular chess guidelines that confuse rookies.

9.7 Worth of the Items

Chess rules

9.7.1 Static Worth

Static worth of the items:
pawn = 1, knight = 3, bishop = 3, rook = 4.5, queen = 9

The analysis of the king is of course inconsequential since it isn’t attainable to trade this piece for any. In any case, its theoretical energy can be between the rook and the bishop or knight.

This scale of values may be very helpful for the newbie because it serves as an evaluation when judging the comfort of a change. The benefit in these values receives the generic title of fabric benefit.

9.7.2 Dynamic Worth

One of many first issues to be taught is that items have double worth. On the one hand, there’s a static and immutable worth that establishes that, for instance, the queen is extra highly effective than a pawn, however there’s additionally a dynamic worth, legitimate just for sure moments of the sport.

Solely on this approach it’s attainable to know that, in sure conditions, the modest pawn might be price greater than the highly effective queen. As these final values are distinctive and extra obscure, we restrict ourselves for the second to taking their existence under consideration.

10. Test and Checkmate

King's Indian Defense

The king is an important piece, as its destiny decides the sport. Subsequently, when an opposing piece threatens to seize you, there’s an obligation to keep away from this risk. In such a case, the king is claimed to be in test (threatened).

If this risk or test can’t be prevented by any authorized transfer, the test is claimed to be mate, and the sport has ended with the victory of the participant who mentioned, mate. It’s forbidden to place one’s king in test, so any transfer by the king to a sq. threatened by an opponent’s piece can be unlawful.

10. 1 Test Guidelines

On this place, the black bishop on b4 is checking the king (that’s, it’s threatening it) as a result of the white king is on the identical diagonal that the bishop controls. If we discover ourselves in test, there are 3 attainable alternate options:

1) Transfer the king to any sq. the place it isn’t threatened.

2) Seize the piece in test, thereby avoiding the risk. On this case, the bishop can seize the rook.

3) Intercept the motion of the aggressor piece, interposing one other piece between it and the king. To do that, Black can place his knight in entrance of the king, masking the test.

Some other transfer that doesn’t fulfill this goal is against the law.

Returning to the place of the diagram, right here White can’t transfer the king to a different sq. because it can’t escape the black diagonal, neither is it attainable to seize the bishop on b4. It’s only attainable to place one piece within the path of the bishop, which might be achieved by taking part in for instance Nc3 or Nd2 and even Bd2.

Quite the opposite, on this place, we see that it isn’t attainable to flee from test in any approach. Subsequently, the test is mate and the sport ends right here with the triumph of Black.

The checkmate within the diagram is called the Idiot’s Mate.

Within the subsequent instance, we see that the black king is checkmated as a result of the bishop on f5 is pinned and the king can’t escape through e7 or f7 as a result of White’s minor items forestall it.

10.2 Fundamental Checkmates

In all these instances, it’s noticed that the widespread sample consists of taking the opponent’s king to one of many board’s edges, activating our king to assist our piece and mate with the piece. The one case through which the activation of our king isn’t obligatory is in mate with 2 rooks.

11. Draw-Perpetual Test and Stalemate

Within the scenario within the diagram, Black is threatening to mate on the following transfer. Such mate can’t be prevented, so White’s solely likelihood lies in a counterattack on the black king; and, as the one recourse to not obtain quick mate, White should give perpetual test.

  1. Qb5+ Ka8 2. Qa6+ Kb8 3. Qb5+ Ka7 4. Qa5+ Kb7 5. Qb5+ Ka8 6. Qa6+ Kb8 7. Qb5+

The draw can even occur by mutual settlement between each gamers or by the 50-move rule, that states that if in a sure place there aren’t any captures of items or actions of pawns; that’s, whether it is proven that the place can’t progress, after 50 strikes, the sport might be declared a draw by the referee or by declare of one of many gamers displaying along with his scoresheet that fifty strikes have been performed.

When one of many sides, having to play and with out its king in test, has no attainable authorized transfer, it’s mentioned to be in a stalemate scenario, and the sport ends in a “draw”. This may be seen within the subsequent diagram, the place Black, whether it is his flip to play, can’t make any legitimate strikes, since any of the attainable strikes with the king are unlawful as a result of they go away it in test.

Chess rules

Stalemate attracts can happen even when the stalemate facet has different items, so long as they don’t have any authorized transfer. For instance, within the subsequent place, whether it is Black’s flip to play, he’s additionally in a stalemate, since there isn’t a legitimate transfer at his disposal.

12. Castling

Castling is a particular transfer, which is made with the king and a rook. It’s the solely transfer through which two items are allowed to maneuver in the identical transfer. It’s finished with the king and any of the 2 rooks, at all times within the preliminary place of each items, within the following approach: the king strikes two squares within the course of the rook with which it intends to fortress. Subsequent, and forming a part of the identical transfer, such rook passes over the king and is positioned subsequent to it, proper on the following sq..

12.1 Forms of Castling

Castling is brief or lengthy, relying on which facet the king is dealing with.

12.2 Guidelines of Castling

4 circumstances make castling not possible:

1) When the king is in test. Thus it isn’t attainable to counter a test by castling. Nevertheless, later, test prevented, if castling can be attainable.

2) When one of many two collaborating items, the king or the rook, has been beforehand moved, even when they’ve later returned to the unique place.

3) When there’s a piece between the king and the rook, each personal or the opponent’s, since it isn’t attainable to leap over them.

4) When the sq. that the king should cross is threatened by an enemy piece, and much more so if the sq. the place the king is positioned is threatened, since that may be leaving it in test.


On this place, White is in test, and subsequently, he can’t fortress. For his half, Black can’t fortress on any flank.

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13. The Three Phases of the Recreation

A recreation of chess is split into three levels:


Whereas not each single chess recreation goes by way of these three levels (some video games may finish within the opening or center recreation), you will need to acknowledge at which stage of the sport one is in whereas taking part in.

Chess is just like battle. You don’t simply bounce proper into the battle. You first broaden your territory (transfer chess pawns), then put together your forces for battle (develop your items), and lastly, begin combating. In chess, shifting pawns not solely enable you to receive area, but in addition frees up your items to maneuver freely.

13.1 Opening

The opening stage is the primary section of the sport. That is the place either side develop their forces and “put together” themselves for the middlegame.

In chess, growing a bit means putting a bit in a sq. the place it’s extra energetic. At first of a chess recreation, all of the items are behind pawns and possess restricted mobility. After we transfer or develop our items, we’re bettering their exercise and making ready them for battle.

Whereas there isn’t a clear-cut transfer that defines the tip of the opening and the beginning of the middlegame, it’s normally thought-about the center recreation after each gamers have castled and developed their queens.

Right here is an instance of a recreation in its opening stage:

Chess rules

These days, due to the evaluation of computer systems and plenty of robust gamers, there exists an unlimited quantity of opening idea. In different phrases, after hundreds of thousands of chess video games, gamers have realized which opening strikes rating higher and which of them are much less highly effective.

On the highest degree, gamers memorize lots of of chess opening variations. This permits gamers to acquire the higher hand and make 10+ strikes with out a lot effort. Chess gamers have additionally given names to particular “openings” or sequences of strikes. For instance, the diagram above is often known as the French Protection.

At this level, it isn’t necessary to memorize completely different chess openings, however you will need to acknowledge What a participant should do within the opening stage.

Within the opening it is best to:

  1. Develop your items!
  2. Shield your king. Partially quantity two, we mentioned an necessary transfer referred to as “castling”. You wish to fortress within the opening stage.
  3. Keep away from, if attainable, shifting the identical piece twice. You wish to develop your entire items.

If you wish to know extra in regards to the opening or opening traps, I invite you to look at the following video, which has greater than 2 million views on YouTube!

13.2 Middlegame

After either side have developed their forces, the middlegame section begins. That is the place the central battle of the chess recreation occurs. Either side develop a plan and try to execute it. Many chess video games are decided within the middlegame.

Chess rules

We are able to see from the diagram above that either side have castled and developed their queens. Either side ought to create a plan and do their greatest to execute it.

Within the Middlegame it is best to:

  1. Search for a plan! It doesn’t matter in case your plan is nice or dangerous. A nasty plan is best than no plan in any respect.
  2. Maximize the exercise of your items. Within the opening, you developed your items; nevertheless, within the middlegame, we might search for the optimum sq. for our items. Possibly we wish to place our piece in a powerful sq. or trade it. You will need to know what you wish to do along with your items.
  3. Shield your king. The final word aim in chess is to checkmate your opponent. At all times be certain that your king is protected and keep away from weakening your king’s protection.
  4. Consider your opponent. You’re not the one one taking part in chess: Your opponents have a plan additionally they wish to execute. At all times strive to determine what your opponent is planning on doing subsequent. This is applicable to all levels of the sport.

13.3 Endgame

Most chess video games common round 40 strikes, which implies not all video games attain the endgame. All through the center recreation, many items and pawns are exchanged.

We are able to outline an endgame by the truth that the kings are very concerned within the struggle. Normally, we wish to defend our king within the opening and middlegame levels; nevertheless, as a result of many items have been traded, the king is normally protected.

Within the endgame, the king performs a vital function in figuring out the result of a recreation.

Chess Rules

Within the endgame recreation it is best to:

  1. Activate your king: This may increasingly appear counterintuitive, however the king is a really highly effective piece within the endgame. Since each gamers have exchanged an unlimited quantity of items, the king is normally protected.
  2. Promote your pawns. Within the endgame, it’s simpler to advertise pawns as a result of each gamers have fewer items.
  3. Shield your pawns. Pawns are extra invaluable within the endgame as a result of they will grow to be queens simply.

BONUS: Obtain your complete information in pdf (e-book), and skim it anytime, wherever you need. The e-book comprises 4 bonus classes by the GM Igor Smirnov. Obtain now.